High Education

23/10/2017- Sagootin 7 8 9 11Wasaaradda Waxbarashada iyo Tacliinta sare ee Dowlada Puntland oo sagootiyey 204 arday oo deeq waxbarasho ka helay dalalka Ethiopia iyo Suudaan, waxaana ay ardaydani isugu jirtaa ardayda sanadkani kaalmaha hore ka galay imtixaanka shahaadiga ah ee dawladda Puntland iyo arday shaqaalaha dawladda ah oo deeqdaasi ku guulaystey imtixaan kadib.

By Deeq Hurevov: Madaxa isku xirka Wasaaradda Waxbarashada iyo Tacliinta sare.

Daawo Sawiro Tababarkii Hubinta Tayada iyo ku Haboonanshaha ee Shaqaalaha Qaybaha Tayo Dhowrka jamacadaha Puntland.

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Puntland Higher Education Policy




Garowe, 24 – 30 November 2010


ACCA: Association of chartered and certifying accountant

CfBT: Center for British Teachers




Moe: Ministry of Education

MU:MogadishuUniversityBosaso campus ,

NQF: National Qualifications Framework


ODeL: Open and Distance Learning

PCC:PuntlandCommunity College.

PIDAM: Puntland Institute for development and Administration management


SIBA: Somali Institute of business administration

SOMUSTEC:SomaliUniversityof Science and Technology.

TFG: Transitional Federal Government










Despite the fact that Puntland has in recent years been making considerable efforts to address higher education issues, the majority of higher education providers are still ill equipped and managed. As per preparing this document, there are a number of local institutions of higher learning registered by the government of Puntland.



The beginning of higher education inSomaliacan be traced back to 1954 when the Higher Institute of Law and Economics was established inMogadishu, then the capital ofSomalia.

The institute used to offer two-year Diploma courses in law & Economics and two years inItalyfor completion of degree requirement. In 1968 Lafole College of Education previous NTEC (National Teachers Education Centre) started a four year degree programme in education. These institutions were upgraded into Somali National University (SNU) in 1970. The SNU had fourteen faculties ranging from Islamic and Arabic studies, Linguistics, veterinary and animal husbandry, education, agriculture, geology, medicine, technology and commerce, political science, journalism, law, economics, industrial chemistry and engineering.

In addition the Somali Institute of Development Administration & Management (SIDAM) offered MBA partial degree courses to be completed by universities in theUSAand lately by SNU.

During the period 1970-1991 the central government developed many technical institutions in the areas of management, finance, telecommunications, agriculture, health sciences and teacher training for the purpose of providing skills to strengthen the operations of the respective government departments

However due to the political developments at the time the Central government collapsed in 1991 which brought to an end all the initiatives which had been started in higher education. It is noted that before the collapse of the Central government all the institutions of higher education were clustered aroundMogadishuand this consequently precipitated a crisis on how to re-establish higher education on a national scale which provides to all regions of theRepublicofSomalia.

It is in consideration of this situation that there is a growing trend towards regional sustainability in providing essential services such as higher education to the public. For this purpose the focus is to develop higher education policy forPuntlandStateofSomalia. The policy is meant to give direction to higher education in this state.

PuntlandStateofSomaliawas established in 1998 as a self governing state. It lies to the north east ofSomaliaand boardersEthiopia, Gulf of Aden andSomaliland. It has a population of about 3.96 million people (Ref: Puntland Five Year Development Plan 2007-2011)

Since its establishment a number of higher education institutions have been established in Puntland regions.

—  The first institution to offer a diploma was UNITAC, 1994. It was later to become Puntland Institute for Development Administration and Management (PIDAM) located in Bossaso.

— ProfessionalSchoolwas established in Garowe 1998. This later became the Puntland Community College (PCC) 2001, and later on turned into the current Puntland State University (PSU) in 2004.

—  The first University to offer degree courses was the East Africa University (EAU) which was established 1999 in Bossaso.

—  in 2003 the Government of Puntland approved for establishing PSU Galkayo, in Galkayo city


—  GTEC (GaroweTeachersEducationCollege) established 2005 in Garowe.


—  SIBA (Somali Institute of Business Administration) offers Certificate level of Accounting and Management, IT.


—  Mogadishu University Bossaso Campus was Established 2008 in Bossaso.


—  Bossaso college which turned intouniversity  ofBossasoestablished 2006 in Bossaso. (UoB)

—  Somali University of Science and Technology established in Qardho 2010. (SOMUSTEC)

These institutions were established to offer knowledge and skills at diploma and degree level in the areas such as administration, business, and other social sciences.

Some of these institutions have been upgraded to offer degrees in areas such as Sharia and Islamic studies, Community development, Business Administration, and Public Administration. The degree granting institutions are mainly in the social sciences. It is also noted here that these institutions are neither public nor private. They are established on the basis of public/ private partnership as community institutions



PuntlandStateofSomaliahas recognized the need for strengthening its higher education in order to produce competent and human resource that would support development needs of the region.

An analysis of the needs provided by the stakeholders indicates that there is inadequate manpower to support delivery of services in many areas of government.  Enrolment in schools is low compared to eligible candidates who are currently out of school. However, there is need to undertake a manpower survey to establish the extent of the need and hence be able to relate to capacity required in the existing institutions as well be able to determine further expansion of higher education and training opportunities. The consistency of statistics in training has been hampered by the destruction of records and physical infrastructure which resulted from the war.

The system has strengths and weaknesses which may hinder development of higher education if not addressed.


  • Limited coordination among higher education institutions
  • Weak trained managements staff
  • Inadequate resources (Human, Financial and Material resources)
  • Un-harmonized academic standards
  • Lack of Quality assurance mechanisms
  • Lack of common evaluation and promotion system
  • Limited linkages and affiliation with similar institutions in the region and the globe.
  • Scarcity of institutionalized technical education
  • Duplication and overlapping courses in most higher education institutions which will affect sustainable development process and market demands in the national level
  • Lack of research and publication centers






  • Expending secondary education and increasing number of secondary leavers every year.
  • expanding of communication technology
  • Potential Somali qualified manpower locally and internationally.
  • Community confidence and contribution
  • Somali Diaspora support to Higher Ed. Institutions
  • Potential state fund and support
  • Readiness of regional Higher education institutions to affiliate and cooperate with our institutions.
  • International partners support.

The inherent constraints and challenges which the emerging higher educations should deal with are;


  • Fragile security situation in Puntland due to Piracy, fanatics, interest groups etc.
  • Lack of national plan and state policy toward development
  • Unstable relationship between Puntland state and TFG
  • Low income of Somali families
  • Inadequate of well trained human resource.
  • Luck of state fund.
  • Crises of legal entity of higher education institutions (private, public, community owned).

It is observed from programmes on offer in the Colleges and Universities, recently established, that most of the courses are in social sciences. This is illustrated in tables 1-3 below.






Table 1

Student Enrolment in Bossaso campus 2008-2009/2009-2010-Mogadishu University by course

No Faculties 1st Year 2nd Year
Male Female Total Female Male Total
1 Sharia & Law 18 16 34 9 29 38
2 Education 17 5 22 1 17 18
3 Economics & Mgt Sciences 97 16 113 22 78 100
4 Comp science & IT 0 0 0 4 22 26
5 Post-graduate (MBA) 0 0 0 5 13 18
Total 132 37 169 41 159 200


Table 2:

Puntland State University

Conventional classes per faculty-2009-2010

Class Male Female Total
Faculty of Business Admin 67 26 93
Faculty of social science 44 15 59
Faculty of law 75 29 104
Faculty of economics 30 2 32
Total 216 72 288


Table 3

ODeL and short courses

Class male female Total
Dip Journalism 4 12 16
Cert In Journalism 1 16 17
ACCA 12 2 14
Judges training 24 24
Professional skills 90
Entrepreneurship 50
Hotel Mgt 20
Total 231


This is understandable considering that these institutions are not funded by the government and are largely private. Because they are not government they are likely to choose programs that do not require heavy financial investment which is that case with social sciences. A higher education policy which, strategize on how basic sciences and related professions, which are key to development, can be implemented in selected institutions. This would ensure that professions which are critical to improvement of the quality of life are taught. Such programs include science and technology. They should embrace relevance of programs and quality assurance. These practices are part of the culture that leads to competitiveness of graduates in the nation, region and the world. The nation stands to benefit in its ranking when it embraces quality assurance and relevance. The graduates are will be easily employable because of the high level of expertise that they have acquired and will be ranked among the best trained graduates at their level.

It is also noted that many higher education institutions have recently been established and this will create a need for lecturers who have Masters Degrees and above. There will also be a need for some universities to develop capacity for post graduate training on a continuous basis. These will ensure that universities gradually strengthen their human resource for supporting their academic programs. This effort will need to be coordinated on a national level in order to share the existing   expertise in the university as well as being able to benefit from international partners in this effort.

It is also observed that enrolment records in the universities show that there are more male to female student who are about 21% (MogadishuUniversity, Puntland Campus August 2010)

Higher education policy needs to strategize on how gender equity can be achieved in higher education enrolment.

Along with that consideration, there is need to assure access to all who are eligible to higher education at various levels including those with special needs as well as candidates who are limited by socio- economic and geographical factors.


As has been explained, higher education is very crucial to development of manpower needs of the nation. It is the pace setter in the process. To be able to address all the issues raised above there will be need to create an umbrella body composed of various stakeholders who will advise the Government on higher education matters. It is proposed here that the body be called Commission for Higher Education.

The Council for Higher Education whose functions are explained below would require to be established by an Act of Parliament. The Council’s primary role will be to advise the Minister in charge of Education on higher education policy issues. It will also perform certain duties such as establishing guidelines and standards of quality assurance, registration and accreditation of institutions and ensuring comprehensive development of manpower for the nation.


Rationale for Establishing Commission for Higher Education

Higher education providers in Puntland operate largely as autonomous private entities with no body to harmonize their programmes, oversee the quality of education they offer or plan for the general development of higher education as a sector. There is no system to develop the much needed capacity to develop these institutions and the education that they offer to a level that is at par with their peers in the region. They have limited links with other universities and are therefore not able to share academic knowledge and management expertise with their peers in the more established institutions.


Moreover, credit transfer systems have not been developed and the degrees offered have recognition only withinSomalia, thereby limiting employment and career advancement opportunities for graduates. The managements of these institutions recognize the need to develop a regulating organ and links with others for the development of the quality of their own universities. In Puntland, the need to regulate, coordinate and assure quality of higher education was felt as a result of the growth and expansion experienced in the sub-sector. In 2010, the Ministry of Education had established a department that was mandated to make better provisions for the advancement of higher education in Puntland.  However, a need was felt to establish a commission for higher education in Puntland.



Members of the Council are appointed on the basis of their expertise and experience in higher education and research. They are expected to give guidance and advice on matters of higher education in the country. The selection takes into consideration representation from industry, governance, gender, geographical representation or any factors of national significance as may be regarded important at the time.

It is proposed that the composition be as follows:

9 members, which will include the Chairman and the vice Chairman, appointed by the President

  • 11 members representing existing higher education institutions
  • 3 members co-opted by the Commission

The members appointed to have minimum qualification of a University degree and an experience of 5 years in higher education or other profession.

The life span shall be 5 years.


The Commission Secretariat

The Secretariat will be headed by the General Secretary who shall be a person with wide experience of University education and administrative experience. Other members of the Secretariat shall be appointed by the Commission on merit through interviews

There will be Departments as follows:


Responsible for University, Technical and Vocational education institutions;

  1. Assessment
  2. Admissions and Registration (Full ad Partial)
  3. Legal Issues.
  4. Compliance and Enforcement.
  5. Space requirements
  6. Physical facilities


Responsible for University education:

Curriculum; Content, delivery methods, contact hours, credit hours, outcomes, references

  1. Providing directions on priorities of field of specialization based national development needs
  2. Monitoring and evaluation of Policies implementation
  3. Academic resources; Classrooms, Laboratories, Library, Information access, offices, infrastructure
  4. Teaching Faculty; size, qualifications and relevant experience.
  5. Research; policy, research areas, funding
  6. Governance and management directions.


Responsible for Technical and Vocational Education;

  1. Curriculum; Content, delivery methods, contact hours, credit hours, outcomes, references
  2. Providing directions on priorities of field of specialization based national development needs
  3. Monitoring and evaluation of Policies implementation
  4. Academic resources; Classrooms, Laboratories, Library, Information access, offices, infrastructure
  5. Teaching Faculty; size, qualifications and relevant experience.
  6. Research; policy, research areas, funding
  7. Governance and management directions



Responsible for University, Technical and Vocational Education:

  1. National qualifications framework (NQF)
  2. Credit transfers
  3. Collaborations between institutions at different levels and /or in different sectors.
  4. Recognition of Qualifications obtained from within Puntland and abroad.
  5. Quality Assurance; Internal and External structures , good practices, benchmarking , linkages with other quality assurance agencies, regional and international networking
  6. Public Relations/ Exhibitions for Higher education institutions.
  7. Carry out institutional  academic audit  in PHE institutions
  8. Perform annual institutional ranking based on set up criteria


  1.  Drafting of Research Policy
  2. Advocacy for allocating research fund
  3. Publications
  4. Carry out regular capacity mapping for higher education institutions
  5. Designing and conducting capacity building interventions for Higher Education institutions.


  1. The implementation of the policy will require concurrence of the major stakeholders such as the top officials of the Ministry in charge of Education and the targeted stakeholders in Universities and tertiary institutions as well as representatives of the private and public sectors.
  2. For the initial period to put the Commission in place it will be necessary for the Commission to appoint key members of the Secretariat on leave of absence from their institutions.
  3. The initial team will undertake the initial activities of preparing implementation of the Commission, such as housing of the Commission, budget and other activities. Subsequent activities of the Secretariat will then follow as guided by the Commission.
  4. Most of the tasks that the Commission will perform such as quality assurance, accreditation and inspections will require established standards and there will be need for the Commission to facilitate some members of the Secretariat to make short visits to established Commissions to familiarize themselves with the procedures of developing the tools required for various processes. Such tools will be required in guiding in the establishment of new Universities, assessment of programs, streamlining collaborations between Universities as well as conducting institutional audits.
  5. The tasks of the Commission will involve resource persons from institutions and professional organizations. The secretariat is a facilitator and not the specialists. The work is done through committees.

 Admission Criteria for Puntland higher education Institutions

Proposed criteria

  • Secondary school leaving certificate or equivalent
  • Minimum admission grade for universities is  C grade
  • Minimum admission grade for Colleges and institutes is D grade
  • Entrance exam based on department requirement for all intake regardless for their previous grades


Policy Approval process 

  • First draft should be ready within 10 days
  • Then should be circulated to the participants for their final comments if there is any comments
  • MoE approve the policy within 7 days
  • Final draft of the policy will be submitted to the cabinet
  • After the approval of the cabinet the draft will be tabled to the parliament for final approval



  • List Participants
  • Sample of first higher education institute who offered Degree program



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